|US brand name: Adderall|
|Generic name: dextroamphetamine and amphetamine|
side effects, dosage, how to take & discontinue, uses, pros & cons, and more
Table of Contents (hide)
- 1. Other brand names & branded generic names1
- 2. FDA Approved Uses of Adderall XR (dextroamphetamine and amphetamine)
- 3. FDA Approved Uses of Immediate-Release Adderall (dextroamphetamine and amphetamine)
- 4. Off-Label Uses of Adderall
- 5. Adderall’s pros and cons
- 6. Adderall’s Side Effects
- 7. Interesting Stuff Your Doctor Probably Won’t Tell You about Adderall
- 8. Adderall’s Dosage and How to Take Adderall
- 9. How Long Adderall Takes to Work
- 10. How to Stop Taking Adderall
- 11. Adderall’s Half-Life & Average Time to Clear Out of Your System
- 12. Days to Reach a Steady State
- 13. How Adderall Works
- 14. Shelf-Life
- 15. Comments
- 16. Adderall Ratings, Reviews, & Other Sites of Interest
- 17. References
Other Forms: Extended-release Adderall-XR, which is the default for Adderall these days. The immediate-release form is still available as both brand and generic.
1. Other brand names & branded generic names1
I think there are more generic names for Adderall than all the transliterated crazy med generics in Finland. The only reason I use dextroamphetamine and amphetamine is because it’s the shortest with any form of precision.
- Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in adults and children age 6 and older.
- Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in children age 6 and older, but not adults.
- Countering the cognitive side effects of AEDs and Antipsychotics.
- Non-fluent aphasia
- OCD, which surprises me. You’d think Adderall would make OCD a billion times worse.
- A tried and true way to treat ADD/ADHD and narcolepsy.
- The go-to med for severe ADHD.
- Because it’s an amphetamine it has a low side effect profile.
- Those triplicate prescriptions are a pain in the ass to deal with.
- If you have any history of drug abuse, the odds are you’ll never get an Adderall prescription no matter how much you’ve cleaned up your act and how helpful it will be to you.
- Because it’s an amphetamine it might be a little too much fun to use for some people.
The usual for stimulants:
- dry mouth
- weight loss
- heart palpitations
- raised blood pressure
Generally everything clears up after a couple weeks except the constipation, weight loss, increased blood pressure and increased libido. So unless you have blood pressure issues and/or real problems with being too thin and/or too horny already I’m sure you can live with the typical side effects.
Triggering a manic reaction. More often than not this happens when someone is misdiagnosed as only having ADD/ADHD when they are also bipolar. For the longest time you couldn’t find “manic reaction” as a side effect anywhere in the PI sheet, just every symptom of mania listed instead. Apparently someone else noticed that great CYA (Cover Your Ass) move by Shire and complained to the right people. Shire now recommends screening for bipolar disorder. About time they did the right thing.
Other not-so-common side effects are:
- general exacerbation or unmasking of Tourette’s or similar syndromes
- screwing with your menstrual cycle
Amphetamines don’t have much in the way of side effects, let alone freaky rare side effects. The closest thing I can find is the combination of increased libido and impotence, which you can also get from Wellbutrin.
- Lithium prevents Adderall from working. Giving lithium carbonate to lab rats who were jacked up on amphetamines and watching them mellow out is how scientists back in the 1970s confirmed that lithium probably does work for bipolar disorder.
- Mixing booze and Adderall, or any stimulant, is a really bad idea. Not only do you increase the chances of having a seizure of some kind (even if you’ve never had one before), but you just don’t feel quite so drunk. So you have another. And another. And another. Until you’re a lot thinker than you’re drunk, and still insist on driving home, what do you mean it’s not your car?
- Your doctor, or at least your pharmacist should tell you not to wash down your Adderall with orange juice or any other fruit juices. Those severely lower the absorption of amphetamines. You can drink fruit juice at other times of the day, just not around when you’re taking your speed.
- The same goes for vitamin C supplements
- On the flip side, you need to avoid taking antacids at the same time as Adderall, as that can cause you to wind up getting more than you expected.
- Adderall is one of the few drugs that is referred to by brand name far more often than by its generic name in the literature. Why? Probably because no one can agree on exactly what the generic name is. I’m going with “dextroamphetamine and amphetamine” because it’s short and more precise than the somewhat shorter “mixed amphetamine salts.”
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With all stimulants the drug companies and I are in full agreement - start at the lowest possible dosage and see what works! Here it is, right in the PI sheet:
Individualize the dosage according to the therapeutic needs and response of the patient. Administer ADDERALL XR at the lowest effective dosage. —Adderall XR PI sheet
I prefer the wording for immediate-release Adderall:
Regardless of indication, amphetamines should be administered at the lowest effective dosage and dosage should be individually adjusted. Late evening doses should be avoided because of the resulting insomnia. —immediate-release Adderall PI sheet
Adderall was originally approved for childhood ADD/ADHD and all the guidelines were just for kids, so they would start you out at 5mg once or twice a day. With the XR version that would be one 10mg capsule a day. And I’m really down with that method. Now the PI sheet has adults starting at 20mg a day no matter what. You know, they make 5mg and 10mg capsules and everything costs the same, so why not start at 10mg, or even 5mg a day and see how that goes at first? It’s easier to deal with having to take more Adderall if it’s not working well enough than to deal with the side effects of having had too much to start with. If required increase your by 5–10mg a day, giving it at least a week between each increase.
The maximum dosage for an adult is 60mg a day. For kids it’s 30mg a day.
Adderall XR is taken once a day, with or without food, preferably in the morning (or whatever time of day it is when you’re supposed to wake up). Immediate-release Adderall is taken twice a day.
Only immediate-release Adderall is approved for narcolepsy, so it’s start with the lowest dosage possible - one 5mg tablet twice a day. If required, increase your dosage by 5–10mg a day per week. As with ADD/ADHD the maximum dosage for an adult is 60mg a day. Adderall should be doing something positive for you long before then. If you’re taking 40mg of Adderall a day, still taking unwanted power naps randomly through the day, and looking like the winner of the Miss Anorexia contest, you should be discussing another med with your doctor.
These days using Adderall or other stimulants for depression is pretty radical, but not unheard of. They are sometimes the only thing that will work. Good luck in finding a doctor who will actually work with you along these lines if you need to go this route. Again you should start at the lowest possible dosage. I don’t have a clue if the maximum dosage of Adderall for depression is lower than 60mg a day or not. This is the sort of thing most doctors don’t want to write about. In Essential Psychopharmacology: Neuroscientific Basis and Practical Applications Stahl writes about using amphetamine along with MAOIs to treat depression that refuses to respond to anything else. Which has to be really tricky, because amphetamine is an MAOI itself, albeit a mild one.
You should start feeling results within hours of taking your first dose. You might not get over your ADD/ADHD or narcolepsy symptoms immediately, but you’ll certainly feel something. This is all part of the art of psychopharmacology combined with whatever therapy you’re getting and coping skills you’re learning. It’ll all be a matter of finding the right dosage and learning to work with this med. Presuming Adderall is the right drug for you in the first place.
Your doctor should be recommending that you reduce your dosage by 10–20mg a day every three days if you need to discontinue it. The symptoms of amphetamine withdrawal syndrome - panic, nausea, agitation, insomnia, depression, and an overall sense of helplessness - are unpleasant, but if whatever you’re experiencing sucks more than all those, sudden discontinuation rarely causes any severe problems. Unless you were taking 50–60mg a day for several years.
So if you’re at 60mg a day you take 50mg a day for three days, then 40mg a day for the next three days and so forth until done.
The half-lives of Adderall’s two main components, dextroamphetamine and amphetamine are, respectively, 11 and 13 hours in adults. So call it three days.
Usually two to three days.
Although it predates it, amphetamine is like Wellbutrin on steroids. Like Wellbutrin Adderall is a norepinephrine and dopamine reuptake inhibitor. Not only that, amphetamine shoves the dopamine and norepinephrine into your neurons faster and encourages your brain to pump out more of those tasty neurotransmitters. Why that works for ADD/ADHD is actually fairly well understood, as the Communications Interference Hypothesis of psychiatric and neurological conditions, is generally accepted for ADD/ADHD. Basically you’re not getting enough and/or your brain isn’t properly processing dopamine and norepinephrine in specific parts of your brain, with different areas corresponding to the different types of ADD/ADHD. Adderall, other stimulants, Wellbutrin and Strattera correct that imbalance or compensate for your lazy ass brain.
How Adderall works for narcolepsy is purely brute force. Unlike Provigil (modafinil) and Nuvigil (armodafinil)
Two years? I could find the shelf-life for the dextroamphetamine component only.
Don’t worry about actually buying one. Windows shop and share the designs you’d like to buy or find worthy of ridicule. What else are you doing now? Working? Sure you are.
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If you’re still feeling judgmental as well as just mental2, please boost or destroy my self-confidence by honestly (and anonymously) rating this article on a scale of 0 to 5. The more value-judgments the better, even if you can criticize my work only once.
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16.3 Full US PI sheet, Global SPCs & PILs, Other Consumer Review & Rating Sites, check for drug-drug interactions
It’s always a good idea to check for drug-drug interactions yourself. Just because most people in the crazy meds business know about really important interactions (e.g. MAOIs and a lot of stuff, warfarin and everything on the planet) doesn’t mean the person who prescribed your meds told you about them, or the pharmacist has all the meds you take at their fingertips like they’re supposed to. Or they have the time to do their jobs properly when not dealing with complete idiots or playing Angry Farmers on the Faecesbooks.
If you have any questions not answered here, please see the Crazymeds Adderall discussion board.
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Full US PI sheet for Adderall XR Full US PI sheet for immediate-release Adderall Stahl’s Essential Psychopharmacology: Neuroscientific Basis and Practical Applications (Essential Psychopharmacology Series) Third edition by Stephen M. Stahl © 2008 Published by Cambridge University Press. Primer of Drug Action 12th edition by Robert M. Julien Ph.D, Claire D. Advokat, Joseph Comaty © 2011 Published by Worth Publishers. Clinical Handbook of Psychotropic Drugs 18th edition Adil S. Virani, K. Bezchlibnyk-Butler, J. Jeffries © 2009 Published by Hogrefe & Huber Publishers.
Mosby’s Drug Consult 2007 (Generic Prescription Physician’s Reference Book Series) © 2007 An imprint of Elsevier. Also the 2004 edition, but only on pages that haven’t been fully updated yet.Instant Psychopharmacology 2nd Edition Ronald J. Diamond MD © 2002. Published by W.W. Norton The Complete Guide to Psychiatric Drugs Edward Drummond, MD © 2000. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PDR: Physicians’ Desk Reference 2010 64th edition back through to 53rd edition of 1999. Old copies of the PDR come in handy for PI sheets that are no longer available and difficult to find, as well as to track the changes in both indications and adverse effects. Healing ADD: The Breakthrough Program That Allows You to See and Heal the 6 Types of ADD Daniel G. Amen, M.D. © 2002. Published by G.P. Putnam’s Sons. 1 The term "branded generic" has three meanings:
1) A generic drug produced by a generics manufacturer that is a wholly-owned subsidiary of the company that makes the branded version. E.g. Greenstone Pharmaceuticals makes gabapentin, and they are owned by Pfizer, who also own Parke-Davis, the makers of Neurontin.
2) A branded generic is also a generic drug given a 'brand' name by the manufacturer (e.g. Teva's Budeprion), but otherwise has the same active ingredient as the original branded version (Wellbutrin).
3) A branded generic is also a generic drug given a 'brand' name by the manufacturer (e.g. Sanofi-Aventis' Aplenzin, which is bupropion hydrobromide) and uses a salt of the active ingredient that is different from the original branded version and other generics (Wellbutrin, Budeprion and all the others are bupropion hydrochloride). We aren't sure if that really makes a difference or not. The FDA says they're the same thing. As usual, the data are contradictory, but most evidence indicates that the FDA is right and the differences are negligible.
For our purposes a "branded generic name" refers to the second and third definitions.
2 Thank you! I'll be here at least 72 hours. Be sure to tip your content provider. And don't try the veal, it's cruelicious!
If you have any questions not answered here, please see the Crazymeds Adderall discussion board. We welcome criticisms of the articles, notifications of bad links, site problems, consumer experiences with medications, etc. I’m not always able to write back. Hence I never answer questions about meds via e-mail that are answered by this or other articles. Especially if they have been repeatedly asked on the forum. That’s why we write these damn things. Questions about which meds are best for your condition should also be asked on the forum; because this is a free site, so the price of admission is making things easier for somebody else searching for the same answer. We don’t deal with children on the forum or in private because after doing this for ten years I don’t have the emotional stamina to deal with kids who have brain cooties. How to contact Crazymeds. — Jerod Poore, CME, Publisher Crazymeds (crazymeds.us)
|Last modified on Monday, 04 May, 2015 at 14:40:17 by JerodPoore||Page Author Jerod Poore||Date created|
|“Adderall (dextroamphetamine and amphetamine): a Review for the Educated Consumer.” by Jerod Poore is copyright © Jerod Poore||Published online 2012/09/08|
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1 While there are plenty of books to help you with hypochondria, for some reason there’s not much in the way of websites. Then again, staying off of the Internet is a large part of curing/managing the disorder.
2 Remember kids, Microsloth operating systems are like TOS Star Trek movies with in that every other one sucks way, way more. With TOS Star Trek movies you don’t want to bother watching the odd-numbered ones. With Microsloth OS you don’t want to buy and install the even-numbered ones. Anyone who remembers ME and Vista knows what I mean.
3 Have I mentioned how open source operating systems for commercial applications is one of the dumbest ideas in the history of dumb ideas?* I don’t even need my big-ass rant any more. Heartbleed has made my case for me. And that’s just the one that got all the media attention. The very nature of an open source operating system makes security as much of an illusion as anonymity on teh Intergoogles. Before you flip out too much: the domain Crazymeds is hosted on uses a version of SSL that is not affected by the Heartbleed bug. That’s one of the many reasons why I pay a lot of money and keep this site on Lunarpages.
* Yes, I know I’m using open source browsers. I also test the site using the now-defunct IE and Safari browsers. Their popularity - and superiority - killed IE and Safari, so that’s why I rely on the open source browsers. It’s like brand vs. generic meds. Sometimes the generic is better than the brand.