risperidone pharmacodynamics (mechanisms/methods of action). What Risperdal does and how it does it.
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When you read about the mechanism of action, or how it works, in Risperdal’s PI sheet, it’s almost as vague as how likely it will work. Pretty much every beginning paragraph of the mechanism of action section for every crazy med (and many other non-crazy meds) is a variation on “We don’t know exactly how Panacea, or other drugs like it, works to treat whatever you take it for. In various studies, mostly on rats and other animals, we’ve determined that it does the following…” What you read in the PI sheet is often, but not always the original theorized mechanism of action, or what they thought it does when they started testing the drug for whatever it is now used for1.
After researchers who aren’t being paid by the manufacturer get their hands on med it’s just one study after another, in humans and animals, that supports the original theory. Or determines a precise area in the brain where stuff takes place. Or finds an additional thing the med does. Or finds that it doesn’t do something they originally thought it did. Or finds out that everyone was completely wrong in the first place and the method of action is radically different. That last one does happen. Neurontin (gabapentin) was originally thought to be a synthetic form of GABA that could cross the blood-brain barrier. Turns out that it’s just like every other anticonvulsant and works on voltage channels. Except that it’s unique in that it affects a part of your brain that nothing else touches. Except for Lyrica (pregablin), and a few meds under development (e.g. PD−210714). Still, some people are calling those parts of your brain some people are calling those “gabapentin receptors”, along the lines of benzodiazepine receptors. There supposedly were citalopram receptors as well, but that turned out to be a myth. Ironically gabapentin doesn’t directly affect GABA.
Every day a new peer-reviewed journal is published somewhere adding to our knowledge about how a particular med works, or making us crazier with more contradictory data.
It would be nice if we could break things down into neat parameters like we can with pharmacokinetics, but we can’t. The best we can do is tell you what they originally thought it did, let you know if there are any meds with similar mechanisms / methods (the terms are interchangeable) of action, and give you our best guess as to what it really does based upon more recent research.
2.1 What the PI Sheet Says
as far as we can tell
No two medications will have the exact same mechanisms / methods of action. Sometimes a drug that is developed from the active metabolite of another, essentially inert med e.g. Invega (paliperidone) is a predigested form of Risperdal (risperidone) and is basically the same thing. However there is no good conversion of dosages between the two like there is for Tegretol (carbamazepine) and Trileptal (oxacarbazeine). Like Invega and Risperdal, Pristiq (desvenlafaxine) is the active metabolite of Effexor (venlafaxine), but Pristiq has a somewhat different mechanism of action than Effexor. Mainly it kicks Effexor’s ass when it comes to how potent its inhibition of norepinephrine reuptake is.
All SSRIs are essentially interchangeable, making it possible to work out equivalent dosages so you don’t need to wait until you’ve cleared one drug to start another. But Celexa (citalopram) and Lexapro (escitalopram) are vastly more selective than Prozac (fluoxetine), and so the side effect profiles, and pretty much everything else, are very different when you compare Celexa or Lexapro with other SSRIs, but practically identical when compared with each other. While most people couldn’t tell the difference between Lexapro and Celexa,2 because Lexapro is a derivative of Celexa, a few people will respond differently to the two.
3.1 Drugs with Similar Methods of Action as/That Work Like Risperdal (risperidone)
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1 Unlike Lamictal, which was originally thought to be be such a potent folate antagonist that it would work well as a treatment for malaria and similar parasites that took up residence in your brain. Or Topamax, which was originally thought to be an awesome drug for type 2 diabetes, as it looked like it would both control weight and blood sugar.
2 The one real difference used to be cost. Now that Lexapro is available as a generic in the US that difference isn't as great as it once was.
If you have any questions not answered here, please see the Crazymeds Risperdal discussion board. We welcome criticisms of the articles, notifications of bad links, site problems, consumer experiences with medications, etc. I’m not always able to write back. Hence I never answer questions about meds via e-mail that are answered by this or other articles. Especially if they have been repeatedly asked on the forum. That’s why we write these damn things. Questions about which meds are best for your condition should also be asked on the forum; because this is a free site, so the price of admission is making things easier for somebody else searching for the same answer. We don’t deal with children on the forum or in private because after doing this for ten years I don’t have the emotional stamina to deal with kids who have brain cooties. How to contact Crazymeds. — Jerod Poore, CME, Publisher Crazymeds (crazymeds.us)
|Last modified on Tuesday, 24 September, 2013 at 13:09:07 by JerodPoore||Page Author Jerod Poore||Date created|
|“Risperdal (risperidone): a Review for the Educated Consumer.” by Jerod Poore is copyright © Jerod Poore||Published online 2011/03/08|
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Risperdal, and all other drug names on this page and used throughout the site, are a trademark of someone else. Risperdal’s PI Sheet will probably have the name of the manufacturer and trademark owner (they’re not always the same company) at or near the very bottom. Or ask Google who the owner is. The way pharmaceutical companies buy each other and swap products like Monopoly™ real estate, the ownership of the trademark may have changed without my noticing. It may of changed hands by the time you finished reading this article.
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Almost all of the material on this site is by Jerod Poore and is copyright © 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, and 2015 Jerod Poore. Except, of course, the PI sheets - those are the property of the drug companies who developed the drugs the sheets are about - and any documents that are written by other people which may be posted to this site will remain the property of the original authors. You cannot reproduce this page or any other material on this site outside of the boundaries of fair use copying without the express permission of the copyright holder. That’s usually me, so just ask first. That means if want to print out a few pages to take to your doctor, therapist, counselor, support group, non-understanding family members or something like that - then that’s OK to just do. Go for it! Please. As long as you include this copyright notice and something along the lines of following disclaimer, I’m usually cool with it.
All rights reserved. No warranty is expressed or implied in this information. Consult one or more doctors and/or pharmacists before taking, or changing how you take any neurological and/or psychiatric medication. Your mileage may vary. What happened to us won’t necessarily happen to you. If you still have questions about a medication or condition that were not answered on any of the pages you read, please ask them on Crazy Talk: the Crazymeds Forum.
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1 While there are plenty of books to help you with hypochondria, for some reason there’s not much in the way of websites. Then again, staying off of the Internet is a large part of curing/managing the disorder.
2 Remember kids, Microsloth operating systems are like TOS Star Trek movies with in that every other one sucks way, way more. With TOS Star Trek movies you don’t want to bother watching the odd-numbered ones. With Microsloth OS you don’t want to buy and install the even-numbered ones. Anyone who remembers ME and Vista knows what I mean.
3 Have I mentioned how open source operating systems for commercial applications is one of the dumbest ideas in the history of dumb ideas?* I don’t even need my big-ass rant any more. Heartbleed has made my case for me. And that’s just the one that got all the media attention. The very nature of an open source operating system makes security as much of an illusion of anonymity. Before you flip out too much: the domain Crazymeds is hosted on uses a version of SSL that is not affected by the Heartbleed bug. That’s one of the many reasons why I pay a lot of money and keep this site on Lunarpages.
* Yes, I know I’m using open source browsers. I also test the site using the now-defunct IE and Safari browsers. Their popularity - and superiority - killed IE and Safari, so that’s why I rely on the open source browsers. It’s like brand vs. generic meds. Sometimes the generic is better than the brand.